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Black acid wood species and their wood characteristics (GB / T 18107-2017)

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Mahogany GB / T 18107-2017   ? Appendix F →   Blackwood species and their wood characteristics

Appendix F (informative)
Blackwood species and their wood characteristics

Dalbergia lanceolata, Pterocarpus latifolia, Pterocarpus rosenbergii, East African ebony, Brazilian Dalbergia, Amazon Dalbergia, Belize Dalbergia

F. Dalbergia cultrata Benth. (Leguminosae Dalbergia)

Foreign trade name :Burma blackwood

Trees and distribution : arbor, up to 25 m in height and 0.6 m in DBH. The main products are Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Yunnan, China.

Macroscopic structural features Porous wood Heartwood The new section is purple or purplish red brown, often with dark brown or chestnut brown stripes. Growth ring Not obvious or slightly obvious. Tube hole It can be seen under the naked eye, with few to a few. Axial parenchyma It is obvious to the naked eye, mainly strip and wing. Wood ray It's invisible to the naked eye. Ripple mark It can be seen under a magnifying glass. The fresh section has acid aroma; The structure is fine; The texture is straight (Fig. F.1).

 Wood macrostructure of sabre ebony

Figure F.1 photos of wood macrostructure

Microstructure characteristics The main vessels were single tube holes, and a few of them were multiple tube holes (mostly 2-3); 1 / mm ²~ 12 / mm ²; Maximum chord diameter 182 µ m. Average 118 µ m。 The pits between the tubes are arranged with each other, and the pits are attached to the tubes; Single perforation, the pit type between the catheter and the ray is similar to that between the tube and the ray. The axial parenchyma was paratubular (32-12 cells wide) and pterygoid; Crystalloid cells were common in the cells; Overlapping. The wood fiber wall is thick and overlapped. Wood rays 17 / mm ~ 21 rays / mm; Overlapping. There were few uniserial rays, 3-10 cells high. The multilayered rays were 2-3 cells wide and 5-10 cells high. The ray tissues were of the same shape as the uniserial and multilayered (Fig. F.2).

 Wood microstructure of sabre ebony

Figure F.2 photos of wood microstructure

Air dry density (12% water content)

Specimen material


F. Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. (Leguminosae Dalbergia)

Foreign trade name :Indian rosewood

Trees and distribution : arbor, up to 43 m in height and 1.5 m in DBH. The main products are India and Indonesia.

Macroscopic structural features : porous material. Sapwood is light yellow and white, which is obviously different from heartwood. The heartwood is light golden brown, black brown, purple brown or deep purplish red, and often has a wide purplish black stripe. The growth ring is not obvious or slightly obvious. The number of tube holes is small to a little less. The axial parenchyma is obvious in the naked eye, which is mainly wing shaped, poly pterygoid and banded. It can be seen under a wood ray magnifying glass. The ripple marks can be seen under a magnifying glass. The fresh section has acid aroma; The structure is fine; Texture interlacing (Fig. F.3).

 Macrostructure of hardwood Dalbergia odorifera

Figure F.3   Photos of wood macrostructure

Microstructure characteristics catheter Most of them are single tube holes, and a few of them are multiple pipe holes (mostly 22-4); 3 / mm ²~ 17 / mm ²; Containing gum; Maximum chord diameter 276 µ m. Average 144 µ m。 The pits between the tubes are arranged with each other, and the pits are attached to the tubes; Single perforation, the pit type between the catheter and the ray is similar to that between the tube and the ray. Axial parenchyma They are wing shaped, poly pteriform and banded (2-4 cells wide) in wavy shape; Crystalloid cells were common in the cells; Overlapping. Wood fiber The wall is thin to slightly thick, overlapping. Wood ray 6 pieces / mm ~ 10 pieces / mm; Overlapping. There were few uniserial rays, 2-10 cells high; The multilayered rays were 2-3 cells wide and 4-17 cells high (7-10 cells more). The ray tissues were homogeneous, uniserial and multilayered, with rare type III (Fig. F.4).

 Microstructure of hardwood Dalbergia odorifera

Figure F.4 photos of wood microstructure

Air dry density (12% water content) :0.75 g/cm ³~ 1.04 g/cm ³, 82 g / cm in most cases ³~ 0.86 g/cm ³。

Specimen material : cafw9940 (Indonesia), cafw13211 (Indonesia), cafw14079 (Indonesia), cafw8491 (India), cafw19087 (India), cafw22634 (South Africa).


F. Dalbergia louvelii r.vig. (Leguminosae Dalbergia)

Foreign trade name :Bois de rose

Trees and distribution : arbor, up to 15 m in height and 0.4 m in DBH. Main production Madagascar and so on.

Macroscopic structural features : porous material. The new section of heartwood is purplish red, and turns to dark purple or black purple after a long time. The growth ring is not obvious. The number of tube holes is very small. The axial parenchyma is obvious under magnifying glass, and the main part is banded. It can be seen under a wood ray magnifying glass. The fatigue marks are not obvious. Acid aroma is weak; The structure is very fine to fine; The texture is interlaced; There are local curls (Fig. F.5).

 Wood macrostructure of Dalbergia rosenbergii

Figure F.5 photos of wood macrostructure

Microstructure characteristics The main vessels were single tube holes, and a few of them were multiple tube holes (mostly 2-3); 1 / mm ²~ 4 / mm ²; Maximum chord diameter 205 µ m. Average 149 µ m。 The pits between the tubes are arranged with each other, and the pits are attached to the tubes; Single perforation, the pit type between the catheter and the ray is similar to that between the tube and the ray. The axial parenchyma is winglike and banded (1-2 cells wide), arranged in a concentric manner along the chord; Crystalloid cells were common in the cells; Overlapping. The wood fiber wall is thick and overlapped. Wood rays 5 / mm ~ 10 rays / mm; Overlapping. Single row rays (even two rows), 3 ~ 10 cells high, and the ray tissue is the same as the single row (Fig. F.6).

 Wood microstructure of Dalbergia rosenbergii

Figure F.6 photos of wood microstructure

Air dry density (12% water content) : about 0.95 g / cm ³。

Specimen material : cafw22771 (Madagascar).


F. Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. & perR. (Leguminosae Dalbergia)

Foreign trade name :African blackwood; Grenadille afrique

Trees and distribution : arbor, height 5 * ~ * m, DBH 0.5 m ~ 0.6 M. The main products are Tanzania, Mozambique, Kenya, Uganda and other African countries.

Macroscopic structural features : porous material. Sapwood is yellowish brown, which is obviously different from heartwood. Heartwood black brown to yellowish purple brown, often with black stripes. The growth ring is not obvious. The number of tube holes is small to a little less. There are few axial parenchyma, which are usually not seen by naked eyes. It can be seen under a wood ray magnifying glass. The ripple marks can be seen under a magnifying glass. No acid aroma or very weak; The structure is very fine; The texture is usually straight (Fig. F.7).

 Wood macrostructure of ebony in East Africa

Figure F.7 photos of wood macrostructure

Microstructure characteristics catheter Most of them are single tube holes, and a few of them are multiple pipe holes (mostly 2-3); 5 mm ²~ 14 / mm ²; It often contains dark gum; Maximum chord diameter 133 µ m. Average 72 µ m。 The pits between the tubes are arranged with each other, and the pits are attached to the tubes; Single hole, the pit type between the catheter and the ray is similar to that between the tube and the ray. Axial parenchyma It is in the shape of wing and scattered aggregation; Crystalloid cells were common in the cells; Overlapping. Wood fiber The wall is very thick and overlapped. Wood ray 11 pieces / mm ~ 17 pieces / mm; Overlapping. Monoclinic radiation, 3 ~ 14 cells high. The width of multi row rays was 2 cells and the height was 7-12 cells. The X-ray tissue is of the same shape as single column and multi column (Fig. f.8).

 Wood microstructure of ebony in East Africa

Figure f.8 photos of wood microstructure

Air dry density (12% water content) :1.00 g/cm ³~ 1.33 g/cm ³。

Specimen material : cafw19672 (South Africa), cafw22634 (South Africa).


F. Dalbergia nigra (vell.) Benth. (Leguminosae Dalbergia)

Foreign trade name :Brazilian rosewood

Trees and distribution : arbor, up to 38 m in height and 0.9 m-1.2 m in DBH. The main products are Brazil and other tropical South American countries.

Macroscopic structural features : porous material. Sapwood is yellow and white, which is obviously different from heartwood. The color of heartwood varies greatly from brown to reddish brown to purple black. The growth ring is not obvious. Under the magnifying glass, the number of tube holes is small. Axial parenchyma can be seen under the magnifying glass, ring tubular and banded. It can be seen under wood ray magnifier, slightly dense and very narrow. The ripples are visible. No special smell; The new cut noodles are slightly sweet; The structure is fine and uniform; The texture is straight, sometimes wavy (Fig. f.9).

 Wood macrostructure of Pterocarpus brasiliensis

Figure f.9 photos of wood macrostructure

Microstructure characteristics The main type of the catheter is single tube hole, a few diameter series of multiple tube hole (mostly 2 ~ 3) and tube hole group, scattered; 2 / mm ²~ 7 / mm ²; Some of them contain gum and sediment; Maximum chord diameter 261 µ m. Average 149 µ m。 The pitting between the tubes was in a row; Single perforation, the pit type between the catheter and the ray is similar to that between the tube and the ray. The axial parenchyma is winglike, banded (1-3 cells wide) and a few scattered aggregation; It has a cell containing crystal cells; Overlapping. The wood fiber wall is thin to thick and overlapped. Wood rays 5 / mm ~ 10 rays / mm; Overlapping. Monoclinic rays were 2-10 cells high, 2 (even 3) cells wide and 5-10 cells high. The X-ray tissues were homomorphic, uniserial or heteromorphic type III (Fig. f.10).

 Wood microstructure of Pterocarpus brasiliensis

Figure f.10   Photos of wood microstructure

Air dry density (12% water content) :0.87 g/cm ³。

Specimen material : cafw19212 (Brazil).


F.6   Dalbergia spruceana (Benth.) Benth. (Leguminosae Dalbergia)

Foreign trade name :Jacaranda-do-para

Trees and distribution : trees, bark gray white; It is mainly produced in the Amazon region of South America.

Macroscopic structural features Porous wood Sapwood It is light yellow and white, which is obviously different from heartwood. Heartwood Chestnut brown with black stripes. Growth ring Not obvious. Tube hole Visible to the naked eye, it is obvious under the magnifying glass, and the number is very small at least. Axial parenchyma Under the magnifying glass, the ring is tubular and banded. Wood ray It can be seen under a magnifying glass; Slightly dense; Narrow. Ripple mark No. No special smell; The structure is slightly thick and uniform; Texture until slightly interlaced (Fig. f.11).

 Wood macrostructure of Dalbergia amazoniana

Figure f.11 photos of wood macrostructure

Microstructure characteristics The vessels were mainly single tube holes, and a few of them were multiple tube holes (2 ~ 6, mostly 2 ~ 3), scattered; 1 / mm ²~ 4 / mm ²; Containing gum; Maximum chord diameter 323 µ m. Average 192 µ m。 The pitting between the tubes was in a row; Single perforation, the pit type between the catheter and the ray is similar to that between the tube and the ray. The axial parenchyma is ring tube bundle, wing, scattered, convergent and banded (1 ~ 3 cells wide); It is a little overlapping. The wood fiber wall is very thick. Wood rays 10 / mm ~ 16 rays / mm; It is a little overlapping. There were a little more monoclinic rays, 4-15 cells (6-9 cells) higher. The width of multi row rays was 2 (a few 3) cells, and the height was 5-17 cells. The X-ray tissue is of the same shape as single column and multi column (Fig. f.12).

 Wood microstructure of Dalbergia amazoniana

Figure f.12 photos of wood microstructure

Air dry density (12% water content) :0.98 g/cm ³~ 1.1 g/cm ³。

Specimen material : cafw22512 (Brazil), cafw22672 (Brazil).


F.7   Dalbergia stevensonii Standl. (Leguminosae Dalbergia)

Foreign trade name :Honduras rosewood

Trees and distribution : arbor, 15 M-30 m in height and 0.9 m in diameter. Its main products are Belize and other Central American countries.

Macroscopic structural features Semi ring hole material Sapwood The color is light. The heartwood is reddish brown, black brown or purplish brown, with dark and light stripes. The growth ring is obvious. Tube hole Under the magnifying glass, the number is slightly less. Axial parenchyma Abundant; Ring tube, wing shape, band and wheel boundary shape. Wood ray It is obvious under the magnifying glass; Slightly dense; Very narrow. Ripple mark Slightly obvious. The new section has a little aroma, but it will disappear after a long time; The structure is fine and slightly uniform; Texture until slightly interlaced (Fig. f.13).

 Wood macrostructure of Dalbergia Belize

Figure f.13 photos of wood macrostructure

Microstructure characteristics catheter They are single tube hole and multiple tube hole (2 ~ 6, mostly 2 ~ 4), a few tube hole group, scattered; 8 / mm ²~ 32 / mm ²; Maximum chord diameter 312 µ m. Average 82 µ m。 The interlaminar arrangement of the tubes was found; Pit of attachment; For single perforation, the pit type between the catheter and the ray is similar to that between the tubes. Axial parenchyma They are sparse ring tubular, wing shaped, banded (1-2 cells wide, discontinuous) and wheel boundary shape; There were more crystalloblasts in the cells; Overlapping. Wood fiber The wall is very thick and overlapped. Wood ray 9 pieces / mm ~ 12 pieces / mm; Overlapping. The monoclinic radiation was 4-11 cells high. The multilayered rays were 2 (even 3) cells wide and 6-13 cells high. The X-ray tissue is of the same shape as single column and multi column (Fig. f.14).

 Wood microstructure of Dalbergia Belize

Figure f.14   Photos of wood microstructure

Air dry density (12% water content) :0.93 g/cm ³~ 1.19 g/cm ³。

Specimen material : cafw22665 (piece Leeds).